Tracking Russian vessels in the Baltic

Reference books help identify ships observed from the sky

The cluster of dots on the Atlantique 2’s screens may seem like a confusing mess to the untrained eye, but not to the crew of the French naval surveillance aircraft tasked with telling friend from foe in the Baltic Sea.

“Another tarantula,” says an operator as the Russian corvette of the Tarantul class becomes visible, travelling in a pack with other Russian vessels as several nearby NATO ships also criss-cross the placid northeastern European sea.

France’s Atlantique 2 aircraft, in service since the 1980s to detect surface vessels and submarines, has been dispatched to track Russian and Russia-friendly ships, a task that became key after President Vladimir Putin’s invasion of Ukraine.

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– ‘Rapidly distinguish’ –

The patrol aircraft took off from Brittany, western France, early in the morning and stopped over in Germany before heading north to scour much of the Baltic, now a strategic focal point for Western and Russian forces.

The plane’s most senior officer Lieutenant Commander Guillaume — who according to French military tradition gives only his first name — gives the order for the radar’s protective shell to emerge from the plane’s hull.

The sea is calm and the weather clear, but frantic action is visible in a zone, some 50 kilometres (30 miles) wide, between the Swedish and Polish coastlines.

French forces have orders to avoid flying too close to some coastal waters and Russian ships to avert any escalation, or entering potential danger zones where Baltic rim countries may have flagged military activities.

– ‘A strange crane’ –

The flurry of activity coincides with the end of the annual NATO military exercise BALTOPS, which the Russians responded to with manoeuvres of their own.

A well-rehearsed procedure kicks off. Radar operator Chief Petty Officer Maxime watches the signals, known as “tracks”.

Alain shares his observations with Chief Petty Officer Christopher, to his right, who operates the Wescam camera placed at the bottom of the aircraft and that yields a detailed picture of targets even tens of kilometres away.

“It has a strange crane near the bow,” says Christopher as he zooms in on a ship that has attracted their attention despite looking civilian at first glance.

There’s no shortage of acronyms: DDG UK, PBF LT, MLE FI and FFL SE designate British, Lithuanian, Finnish and Swedish vessels.

– ‘Quite crowded’ –

Russians are marked in red, such as the Tarantul or Parchim-class corvettes identified on this flight.

The latter is in charge of electronic warfare and transmissions and sends the plane’s observations via a dedicated chat system to French and NATO command centres. A full report can wait until their return.

The Baltic is where Russia’s attack on February 24 has prompted rapid geopolitical change.

“The Baltic will in effect become a NATO lake,” said Robert Dalsjo at the Swedish Defence Research Agency FOI.

The plane changes direction to fly close to the forbidden Kaliningrad zone to catch a glimpse of the military activity in the highly militarised enclave, then heads north.

The day’s work? Nearly 7,000 kilometres of flight and around a dozen Russian vessels identified including, to the crew’s delight, the stunning sail training vessel Sedov, the world’s largest sailing ship still in operation.

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